Materials handling involves a wide variety of industries, equipment and terminology. Cascade's glossary can help you find what you need to know, from acronyms to technical terms. Click on a letter to expand it, then click on a term to view its definition.


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      A container storing fluids under pressure as a source of hydraulic power. It may also be used as a shock absorber. These may be either diaphragm or cylinder type.

      A device which converts hydraulic power into mechanical force and motion, i.e. hydraulic cylinders and motors.

      Substance capable of adhering one surface to another. For Fiberboard boxes, the substance used to hold plies of solid fiberboard together or to hold linerboard to the tips of flutes of corrugated medium, or to hold overlapping flaps together to form the joint or to close a box. 

      Adhesive Bonding/Pin Adhesion
      The quality of the bond between the liners and corrugated medium is tested by measuring the force required to separate the facings from the flute tips.

      A belt that allows clamp to be properly positioned for roll grabbing and prevents over-driving smaller rolls.

      Automatic Data System - a data collection system, i.e. inventory, shipping, etc.

      Adaptive Force Control - a computer-controlled clamping system that automatically controls the clamp force in proportion to the load weight.

      Automated Guided Vehicle System - used in inventory and order picking.

      Automated Guided Vehicle System - used in inventory and order picking.

      A contact pad surface.

      American National Standards Institute

      Any Quantity - AQ rates and classes are those applicable to the articles regardless of quantity or weight of a particular shipment.

      Allows full product contact, distributes clamp force equally from front to back.

      Automatic Storage and Retrieval System

      American Society of Mechanical Engineers

      American Society for Testing and Materials - a voluntary consensus organization formed for the development of standards on characteristics of material, product, systems and services.

      American Welding Society

        A unit bound by rope, wire, strapping, etc.) usually containing compressible articles or materials (i.e. cotton, rags, etc.).

        Cylindrical containers of three gallons capacity or more, with bilge, without bails, designed to contain either liquids or solids.

        Constructed of wood or wood and metal. The term includes slack kegs, quarter-barrels, half-barrels, hogsheads and tierces. These containers must be closed by means of a wooden, metal, cloth or fiberboard cover.

        Paper or board to be further treated in various ways, depending upon its intended use.

        Weight in pounds of a ream of paper, typically consisting of 480, 500 or 1,000 sheets of a specific size.

        Made with tops constructed of canvas, metal, fiberboard or interwoven flexible material such as wood splints, grass, fiber, reeds, rattan or cane. They are circular, elliptical, square, rectangular or polygonal in shape with straight or tapered sides with a bottom which may be stapled or nailed in place, or formed by a continuation of the basket material. Tops must be securely fastened.

        The revolving gear component of the drive group to rotate attachment.

        Large, longitudinally partitioned vat used to mix and mechanically work pulp with other ingredients to make paper.

        The horizontal position for off-the-floor pickup as it relates to roll handling. The roll core is parallel to the floor.

        Handling a roll that is staged on its side or with its core axis parallel to the ground, either resting on the ground or in a cradle or stand.

        British Industrial Truck Association

        Process for removing air from a hydraulic system.

        Class of printing/writing papers made from bleached chemical woodpulps and cotton fibers.

        International shipments warehoused during temporary layover in transit between countries without affecting tariff regulations—referred to as Free-Trade Zones (see Free-Trade Zones, ‘Warehousing Industry’).

        Intralayer binding force in a multi-ply paperboard or laminate. Also refers to the degree of adherence of coating and film on a sheet and to the interfiber binding force within a sheet.

        Usually found on a high-speed packing line—unfolds boxes from their knockdown state and glues or tapes the bottom flaps in preparation for filling.

        Not a type of paperboard but rather a set of applications for which various types of paperboard are used—generally packaging and food service applications. The major types of paperboard used in these applications are coated bleached kraft, coated, unbleached kraft, and clay-coated recycled. 

        Method of mechanically holding unit load in position in a truck or rail car. Bulkheads are of similar use in rail cars.

        In reference to carton handling, the tendency of the lower load layer to sag or drop from carton clamp.

        Heavy grade papers possessing higher than average quality characteristics. Rigid enough to be used for announcements, invitations, postcards, etc.

        Paper trimmings or damaged paper due to breaks on paper machine and in finishing operations.

        Televisions, microwave ovens, some furniture.

        British Standard Parallel Pipe

        British Standard Parallel Taper

        A wall which partitions or compartmentalizes storage area.

        The strength of material in pounds per square inch. The force required to rupture combined board, using vacuum pressure measured by a Mullen tester, relates indirectly to the ability of the box to withstand external or internal forces, during rough handling. When certain specifications in the carrier classifications are being used, minimum burst strength must be certified (see Mullen Test).

        1) A narrow roll on the ends of a winding set that will be discarded. Butt rolls occur when the total width of an order results in a trim that is too wide to be handled by the trim conveying system. Also called a cookie (q.v.). 2) The paper left on a core after the end of a print job.

        A secondary passage for fluid flow (i.e. Leaking Cylinder Seal.)

          Piece of processing equipment located at dry end of paper machine, consisting of a set of rolls through which paper sheet is passed for smoothing, leveling and gloss improvement.

          A term applied to any paper with a surface glazed by means of calenders; it does not include plate finish but refers to machine finish, English finish, supercalendered and calendering.

          Thickness of a sheet of paper or paperboard, measured under specifically stated conditions, expressed in thousandths of an inch (called mils when referring to paper, points when referring to paperboard).

          The amount of contact pad tilt as viewed from the front of the attachment (see Contact Pad Camber, ‘Warehousing Industry’).

          Heavy kraft sheets placed at the ends of the roll to protect them from dirt and damage. These caps are typically glued in place and help prevent telescoping.

          Copying paper that is treated or coated so it can be used without needing carbon coating or interleaved carbon paper

          Automated / computer-controlled inventory and order picking system.

          The minimum carriage width required for upper and lower hook mounting.

          A folding box used as an inner container made from boxboard. Cartons are not recognized as shipping containers.

          The formation of partial vacuums in a liquid by a swiftly moving solid body (as a propeller). 

          Pulp resulting from reduction of wood or other fibrous raw material into fiber components during cooking phases with various chemical liquors. 

          A strip of wood running horizontally, vertically or diagonally across sides or ends of a pallet container to give strength or to hold the parts in position.

          Papers and paperboards that contain a layer of coating material, such as clay or pigment, in combination with an adhesive.

          (1) Freezer (zero degrees or below) warehousing including fish, meat, vegetables, frozen packaged foods, etc. (2) Refrigerated cooler facility (30 to 40 degrees) warehousing including milk and dairy products, eggs, etc.

          Multi-layered, cylinder-made paperboard having layers made from different pulpstocks.

          Single- and multi-ply, solid and corrugated boards used to make boxes and other containers for shipping materials.

          Linerboard and corrugating medium that meets new edge crush test specifications. HPC grades typically have high compression strength values with reduced basis weights compared with grades made to meet burst strength (mullen) and basis weight specifications under old Rule 41 tests. These grades have ring crush values.

          Length = inches / millimeters (in/mm)

          Flow = gallons per minute / iters per minute (GPM/LPM)

          Pressure = pounds per sq. in. / ar (p.s.i./bar) also kg cm squared

          Torque = foot pounds / Newton Meters (ft lbs/NM)

          Temperature = degrees Fahrenheit / degrees Celsius/Centigrade (Fo/Co)

          The hard starting surface to which the roll winding process is initiated and driven. Typically made of cardboard or very tightly wound kraft paper board from 3" to 5" in diameter.

          When forces applied to the roll are severe enough to cause damage or out-of-roundness to the core. The tighter a roll is wound, the more difficult it is to crush the core wrapper.

          One or more paperboard facings and one or more corrugated members used in making corrugated fiberboard boxes and products

          Singleface = ne corrugated member glued to one flat facing.

          Singlewall = ne corrugated inner member glued between two flat facings.

          Doublewall = hree flat facings and two intermediate corrugated members.

          Triplewall = Four flat facings and three intermediate corrugated members.

          Paperboard used in forming the flute portion of the corrugated board which is adhered to the outside facings.

          One of the wave shapes formed in the corrugating medium. Sized (approx.) by
          A= 33 flutes/ft, B= 47 flutes/ft, C= 39 flutes/ft, E= 90 flutes/ft

          A corrugator plant that has one or more corrugating machines for making corrugated board which is then used to make boxes. A corrugated sheet-feeder plant makes corrugated board but not finished boxes. A sheet plant has no corrugator and buys corrugated board to make boxes.

          A weight or force equal to an opposing weight or force. 

          Volume measure—when used in distribution, describes space in transport or warehouse, i.e. utilization of a cube.

          Volume of load fills a trailer before reaching maximum weight capacity (examples

          A roll that is damaged beyond use and is to be re-pulped is referred to as a culled roll.

            The capacity factor effect of a lift truck with an attachment mounted.

            Loading and unloading shipping containers such as rail, vessel, etc.

            Removal of ink and other undesirable materials from wastepaper by mechanical disintegration, chemical treatment, washing and bleaching before reusing as a source of papermaking fiber.

            Paper and paperboard products cut by a metallic die to specified dimensions or form.

            Shows the clamping pressure in the circuit, indicating that the clamping circuit is functioning properly. 

            Duetche Industrie Norm (German)

            The volume of oil displaced by one complete stroke or revolution of a pump, motor or cylinder.

            Separates units and prevents interlocking during transportation.

            Bridge’s truck to warehouse floor, or bridge’s warehouse to rail car.

            Motion of a cylinder or motor due to internal leakage past components in the hydraulic system.

            Hydraulic motor used on rotating devices.

            Prevents clamp pads from sliding down roll and tearing paper after unclamping roll in slack-chain condition.

            Material used to fill spaces between unit loads during transport, sometimes used in place of bracing. 1) Inflatable dunnage pack, 2) Corrugated void fillers, 3) Rail car spacers (for side-to-side gaps), 4) Dead-piled cases.

            A hardness measurement of rubber.

              A test on corrugated fiberboard in its vertical position with flutes oriented in the direction of loading to determine its resistance to compression measured as pounds per square inch (also referred to as the Short Column Test).

              European Economic Community

              Refers to the distance the load is pushed out due to mounting the attachment.

              Three types of energy are available in modern hydraulics (of the normal hydrostatic type)

              A structural member of the carton clamp arm, upon which the contact pad is bolted, which pivots to allow the contact pad to evenly distribute clamp force front-to-back. Also referred to as Stabilizer.

              Describes all equipment used in product transfer and storage, i.e. lift truck, trailer, dock equipment and warehousing.

              C & F or CRF = Cost and Freight

              CIF = Cost, Insurance, and Freight

              FOB = Free on Board (including or assuming delivery without charge to the buyer’s named destination)

              FAS = Free Along Side (shipper pays all cost up to putting merchandise at side of vessel)

              Any range beyond the normal 48" stroke.

                Federacion European de la Manufencion 

                Elongated, tapering, thick-walled cellular unit that is the structural component of woody plants

                A sheet of solid fiber paperboard with tabs on one or more sides to permit handling of unit loads by slipsheet materials handling equipment.

                (Oil) A device used to remove solids from a fluid.

                High-quality printing/writing and cover papers having excellent surface characteristics for pen and ink writing.


                JIC (Joint Industry Council)

                ORS (O-Ring Seal)

                Japanese Metric

                JIS (Japanese Industry Standard)

                BSPP (British Standard Parallel Pipe)

                BSPT (British Standard Pipe Taper)

                German Metric

                DIN (Deutche Industry Norm)

                British BSPP (British Standard Parallel Pipe)

                BSPT (British Standard Pipe Taper)


                ISO (International Organization for Standardization)

                Frame does not pivot or swing side to side.

                Short arm is not positionable.

                Controls the rate of flow (sometimes referred to as a Volume Control Valve).

                Provides equal arm movement by providing equal hydraulic flow to each clamp cylinder.

                A testing device which gauges either flow rate, total flow, or both.

                The volume of fluid passing a point in a given time.

                A pushing or pulling action. In a hydraulic cylinder, it is the product of pressure on fluid multiplied by the effective area of the cylinder piston. Force is measured in pounds or tons.

                Sheet of paper containing no mechanical pulp fibers, or made of pulp subjected to minimal refining or hydration, which allows water to drain quickly when sheet is formed on fourdrinier wire. Also called woodfree. Free-sheet/woodfree grades are made from chemical rather than groundwood pulp and are split into two main categories

                The resistance to fluid flow in a hydraulic system. An energy loss in terms of power output

                Free Trade Zone—enables shippers to accomplish certain objectives without payment of duties and taxes (see Free Trade Zones, ‘Warehousing Industry’).

                  Grocery Manufacturers of America

                  40" x 48" standard pallet with four-way entry.

                  Directional alignment of fibers in a paper sheet structure.

                  Intaglio printing process employing minute engraved wells. Generally, deeply etched wells carry more ink than a raised surface; hence, they print darker values. Shallow wells are used to print light values. A doctor blade wipes excess ink from the cylindrical printing surface. Rotogravure employs etched cylinders and web-fed stock. Sheet-fed gravure, as its name implies, involves individual sheet feeding.

                  Weight of load reaches capacity of trailer before filling by volume (beverages, high density food and consumer products).

                  Paper that is made from a furnish containing a large percentage of groundwood pulp. Groundwood papers contain 10 percent or more mechanical pulp and are split into two main categories—Coated and Uncoated. 

                  Slurry produced by mechanically abrading fibers from barked logs through forced contact with the surface of revolving grindstone. This pulp is used extensively to make newsprint and publication papers.

                    Made with tops constructed of canvas, metal, fiberboard or interwoven flexible material such as wood splints, grass, fiber, reeds, rattan or cane. They are circular, elliptical, square, rectangular or polygonal in shape with straight or tapered sides with a bottom which may be stapled or nailed in place, or formed by a continuation of the basket material. Tops must be securely fastened.

                    Horizontal Center of Gravity

                    High-Density Polyethylene

                    Hose coming from cowl of lift truck to back side of the mast.

                    Friction or resistance to flow. An energy loss in terms of output (example

                    Hydraulic Force Control - prevents overclamping by automatically controlling clamp force.

                    Household Hazardous Waste

                    Tobacco Container

                    Attachment supply hoses routed through the mast structure.

                    Termination of hose coming from the hose reel to the mast carriage.

                    Numbering System—Hose size determined by the number of 1/16" increments in the hose I.D.—#4 = 4/16", #6 = 6/16", #8 = 8/16".

                    Hydraulic hoses/tubes/reels that supply fluid from the truck cowl to the carriage.

                    Hydraulic hoses/tubes/fittings that supply fluid from the truck carriage to the attachment valve or manifold.

                      Inside Diameter

                      Mounting is integral part of the mast assembly (instead of carriage mount) and its basic purpose is to reduce lost load.

                      Interlocking stacking patterns are popular because they are more stable than vertical patterns; each layer is arranged in opposing directions to the layer below. In this pattern the corners are not aligned; three or all four corners rest on side panels of the box below and results in a 45% to 55% compressive strength loss.

                      International Organization for Standardization

                      Industrial Truck Association (

                      Class II = 16" reference dimension

                      Class III = 20" reference dimension

                      Class IV = 25" reference dimension

                      Class V = 28.67" reference dimension

                      Industrial Truck Standards Development Foundation

                        Joint Industry Council

                        Japanese Industry Standard

                        Just in time

                        Japanese Industrial Vehicle Association

                        A paper roll of the following size

                        Hoses which go from one termination point to another.

                        Termination of two hoses coming from different directions.

                          Knocked Down—an article must be taken apart, folded or telescoped in such a manner as to reduce its bulk at least 33-1/3% from its normal shipping cubage when set up or assembled.

                          KD-Flat—an article’s cubage must be reduced by 66-2/3% from assembled product. 

                          The energy of the moving fluid. Varies with the velocity (speed) of the liquid.


                          A chemical process used in making paper out of tree fiber. Virgin Kraft is made from wood fibers of trees and is stronger and its strength less affected by moisture.

                            Load Center

                            Low-Density Polyethylene

                            A pipe or hose for conducting a fluid.

                            Used as the inner and outer portion of domestic corrugated containers. The board is made in a range of basis weights. Standard is 42 lb/1000 ft2. Other important weights are 33 lb, 34 to 37 lb, 55 to 61 lb and 69 lb.

                            See Tab

                            Lost Load—Refers to the distance the load is pushed out due to mounting the attachment (Effective Thickness).

                            Prevents load from falling into the mast or truck.

                            Interlocking Finger—Used in Beverage Industry on the Single Double Pallet Handler.

                            Bolt-On—as opposed to welded-on backrest—referring to mounting hooks and load handling arms.

                            Hoist System Accumulator that absorbs shocks and reduces the clamp force required to handle the load.

                            Usually found on a packing line—arranges boxes into layers and stacks them up to form a full unit load. Often also includes a machine for applying load stabilizing elements such as stretch wrap or bands.

                            Less Than (Truck) Load

                            A person involved in manual loading and unloading.

                              A fluid conductor which provides many ports.

                              The five dominant market pulp grades are mainly categorized by tree species, pulping process, and geography — either softwood or hardwood, kraft or mechanical, and northern or southern. The key products are Northern Bleached Softwood Kraft (NBSK), Southern Bleached Softwood Kraft (SBSK), Northern Bleached Hardwood Kraft (NBHK), Southern Bleached Softwood Kraft (SBSK), and Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft (BEK).

                              Pulp produced by reducing pulpwood logs and chips into their fiber components by the use of mechanical energy, via grinding stones, definers, etc.

                              Maximum Fork Height

                              Refers to the angle at which the attachment is tilted  (0°, 2°, or 4°) to maximize truck lifting capacity. 

                              Materials Recovery Facility

                              Municipal Solid Waste

                                Three or more different sizes of an article that are placed one inside the other, where the smaller articles are placed within the next larger. Or three or more of the same size article placed one within the other so that each upper article must not project more than 1/3 of its height above the other.

                                The load that can actually be carried by the truck/attachment combination (see Attachment Basics for De-Rate Calculations).

                                Grade of paper, combining high percentages of groundwood pulp, made especially for use in the printing of newspapers.

                                Cloth-like material made from long natural and synthetic fibers and formed from a slurry on a wire screen (such as wet end of a paper machine), or by laying on a fine mesh screen from an air suspension.

                                National Pipe Thread

                                National Safe Transit Association—a nonprofit group who establishes lab performance test procedures and certifies laboratories to conduct these procedures. 

                                National Wooden Pallet & Container Association

                                  Overall lowered height

                                  Old corrugated containers

                                  Rating—Viscosity grades at 100°F (40°C)

                                  SUS - Saybolt Universal Seconds (SAE) / cST—Centastokes (ISO)

                                  Standard = 150 SUS / 32 cST (10w)
                                  Cold Storage = 105 SUS / 22 cST (5w / Automatic)
                                  Military MIL 5606 = 80 SUS / 14 cST
                                  Non Flammable = water glycol / phosphate ester (anti-freeze)

                                  Old magazines

                                  Old newspapers

                                  Maximum/minimum range opening between the arms .

                                  Lift truck designed specifically for picking product from racks to fill orders.

                                  A restricted passage in a hydraulic circuit. Usually a small drilled hole to limit flow or to create a pressure differential in a circuit.

                                  Occupational Safety and Health Act

                                  Old telephone directories

                                  A term that refers to the shape of a roll. There are many causes of out of roundness including poor winding practice, dropping, over clamping, and the effects of resting on a floor in the bilge position. Tolerance for the degree of out of roundness varies and depends of unwinding speeds and equipment. Typical acceptable values range from 1mm-10mm. 

                                  The average width of the carriage used to determine load backrest width.

                                  When cases of product extend beyond the perimeter edges of unit load (i.e., beyond the base dimension).

                                  Office waste paper

                                  Outside dimension or diameter

                                    The pressure applied to a roll by the clamp. Clamp force divided by the area of a single pad, inversely proportional to the pad area.

                                    Device welded to clamp arm to protect tip and bottom edge of pad.

                                    Any platform usually with runners or legs on which a unit load is placed to permit stacking of material, and the movements of material and pallet as a single load.

                                    Aluminum Pallet—Lightweight, durable, sanitary, fireproof. High scrap value. Used in applications where moisture, corrosion or contamination present a problem.

                                    Computer Designed Pallet —get the right pallet for the job – provides cost savings.

                                    Steel Pallet —High strength to weight ratio. Lightweight (40% less than wood), sanitary, nonabsorbent, repels water and chemicals and resists odors and product particles.

                                    Plastic Pallet —Sanitary and easy to clean, resistant to contamination, rot, weathering. Strong and impact resistant. Recyclable. Used in meat and poultry industry. See Plastic Pallets for list of terms relating to plastic pallets.

                                    Wooden Pallet —See Wooden Pallets for list of terms relating specifically to wooden pallets.

                                    Take It or Leave It Pallet —Platen design such that forks can go between stringers and lift load without picking up pallet or the pallet can be picked up with load.

                                    Pallet containers with closed sides and ends, but without top.

                                    Pallet containers with closed sides, ends and a top.

                                    Pallet containers with open or slatted sides or ends, but without tops.

                                    Fiberboard sheets cut to size of a pallet, form an unbroken base for product stacking. Bridges gaps between pallet deck boards, the sheets eliminate any loss of stacking strength for boxes whose edges might not have been supported.

                                    Homogeneous sheet of felted cellulose fibers, bound together by interweaving and by the use of bonding agents, and made in a variety of types.

                                    One of the two broad subdivisions of paper (general term) the other being paper (specific term) (q.v.). The distinction between paperboard and paper is not sharp but, broadly speaking, paperboard is heavier in basis weight, thicker and more rigid than paper. In general, all sheets 12 points (0.012 inch) or more in thickness are classified as paperboard. There are a number of exceptions based upon traditional nomenclature. For example, blotting paper, felts, and drawing paper in excess of 12 points are classified as paperboard. Paperboard is made from a wide variety of furnishes on a number of types of machines, principally cylinder and fourdrinier. The broad classes are

                                    Water slurry of various pulp fibers, dyes, additives and chemicals that is pumped into the paper machine for forming into a sheet.

                                    Hydraulic energy consumed by hydraulic system without providing a working benefit. The drain of Parasitic Loss creates heat and slows attachment speed.

                                    Polyethylene Terephthalate

                                    The attachment hangs on pins as opposed to the ITA hook type mounting (also referred to as Shaft Mounting).

                                    A line whose outside diameter is standardized for threading.

                                    Paper Roll Clamp arms move on a pivot point.

                                    Corner Cutout—The open area between two adjacent slipsheet tabs which allow each tab to fold independently.

                                    Lip/Tab Slipsheet —Describes the 3"-4" extensions on one or more sides of a slipsheet that allows handling of a unitized load by slipsheet materials handling equipment.

                                    Scoreline Slipsheet —The crease between the slipsheet tab and the slipsheet load area The scoreline allows the tab to be folded with less tendency to crack or tear and facilitates use with slipsheet materials handling equipment

                                    A platform onto which a slipsheeted load can be pushed, pulled or transported.

                                    Packaging Machinery Manufacturers Institute

                                    Measurement of thickness of a sheet of paper or board. Used in expressing one thousandth of an inch (0.0001 in).

                                    Can turn clamp 45° to position short arm of a paper roll clamp. Permits improved long arm profile over wide range of roll diameters. Good for handling butt rolls.

                                    The lowest temperature at which a fluid will flow under specified conditions.


                                    Linerboard that has been printed and rewound before combining into corrugated or solid fiberboard.

                                    Force of fluid per unit area, usually expressed in pounds per square inch (p.s.i.).

                                    Back Pressure—pressure encountered on the return side of a system.

                                    Breakout Pressure—minimum pressure which starts moving an actuator.

                                    Cracking Pressure—pressure at which relief valve, etc., begins to open and pass fluid.

                                    Differential Pressure—difference in pressure between any two points in a system or a component—pressure drop.

                                    Full-Flow Pressure—pressure at which a valve is wide open and passes full flow.

                                    Operating Pressure—pressure at which a system normally operates.

                                    Pilot Pressure—auxiliary pressure used to actuate or control a component.

                                    Rated Pressure—the operating pressure recommended for a component or system by the manufacturer.

                                    Static Pressure—pressure in a fluid at rest (a form of potential energy).

                                    Suction Pressure—absolute pressure of the fluid at the inlet side of the clamp.

                                    Surge Pressure—pressure changes caused in a circuit from rapidly accelerated column of oil. The surge includes the span of these changes, from high to low.

                                    System Pressure—pressure which overcomes the total resistance in a system Includes all losses as well as useful work.

                                    Working Pressure—pressure which overcomes the resistance of the working device.

                                    Good strength paper, coated with a pressure-sensitive type of adhesive and converted to tapes and labels.

                                    The static energy of oil which is standing but is pressurized and ready to do work (example

                                    Single—Adjusts pressure for 1/2 function, i.e. for “Clamp” and “Open” functions, it adjusts the clamp circuit only.

                                    Bi-Directional—Adjusts pressure for both “Clamp” and “Open” function.

                                    3-Position—(plus truck relief). Allows clamping force to vary from load to load using the minimum required hydraulic pressure settings.

                                    Plastics Recovery Facility


                                    The number of times a slipsheeted unit load is retrieved or pulled by slipsheet attachments during a complete distribution cycle.

                                    Fibrous material produced by mechanically or chemically reducing woody plants into their component parts from which pulp, paper and paperboard sheets are formed after proper slushing and treatment. Also used for dissolving purpose (dissolving pulp or chemical cellulose) to make rayon, plastics, and other synthetic products. Also, woodpulp.

                                    Pulp that has been densely bundled for easier handling.

                                    Repeated small fluctuation of pressure within a circuit.

                                    Device which converts mechanical force into hydraulic fluid power. Basic design types are gear, vane and piston units.

                                    Polyvinyl Chloride

                                      Quick Disconnect Hydraulic Couplers. Also can reference Quick Change Lower Hooks. Can be connected/disconnected with trapped live pressure and without the use of hand tools.

                                      Quick Fork Mount

                                        The twisting force or stress applied to a pallet container in some types of handling.

                                        Paper containing from 25% to 75% cotton or rag fibers, including bond, ledger and specialty papers.

                                        Recovered paper or wastepaper is used as an alternate fiber to pulpwood or virgin pulp in the manufacture of paper and paperboard. It is not as widely used as woodpulp because of variability, technology, and other considerations. However, in the 1990’s its growth rate began to surpass that of woodpulp because of environmental pressures, and that trend continues into the new millennium. 

                                        Special graduated thickness carton clamp arm designed for knifing between loads.

                                        Refuse-Derived Fuel

                                        Another term for a paper roll 

                                        Cold storage transport

                                        A circuit in which pressure fluid discharged from a component is returned to the system to reduce flow input requirements. Often used to speed up the action of a cylinder by directing discharged oil from the rod end to the piston end.

                                        The maximum pressure that a truck hydraulic system can generate before being regulated. Some attachments have auxiliary relief systems that reduce the maximum pressure at the attachment below that of the host truck system. Relief pressure values are typically adjustable and directly effect the clamp force generated by an attachment

                                        Container for keeping a supply of working fluid in a hydraulic system.

                                        Payload of a forklift after downrating from high lift mast, attachment, other factors.

                                        A reduced cross-sectional area in a line or passage which normally causes a pressure drop (example

                                        Radio Frequency Identification

                                        Refers to the surface hardness and was historically measured by striking the roll with a stick. Uniform hardness across the width of the roll is important.

                                        How tight a roll is wound throughout. Fluctuations in tension radially through a roll can cause damage. Higher uniform tension results in a more stable and durable roll.

                                        The length of the roll along its core axis is referred to as its width or its height. 

                                        Provides 90° (bilge) & 180° stops during 360° clamp rotation, which automatically aligns pad to roll. Positions the roll perfectly horizontal and vertical to the floor. Use in conjunction with Tilt Control.

                                          Society of Automotive Engineers

                                          Any type of paper- and paperboard-making fiber obtained from wastepaper and other used, reclaimable fiber sources.

                                          The attachment hangs on pins as opposed to the ITA hook type mounting (also referred to as Pin Type Mounting).

                                          Flat piece of any type of pulp, paper, and paperboard having a variety of characteristics, sizes and finishes.

                                          All of the integral cut-to-size parts for a complete pallet container in unassembled form.

                                          A test on corrugated fiberboard in its vertical position with flutes oriented in the direction of loading to determine its resistance to compression measured as pounds per square inch (also referred to as the Edge Crush Test or ECT).

                                          Plastic sheeting that shrinks around load to contain entire load as a unit.

                                          Standard Industrial Classification

                                          Paper Roll Clamp arms slide side to side as opposed to just moving on a pivot point.

                                          Removable arms, usually mounted to existing forks.

                                          A flat sheet of material used as a base upon which goods and materials may be assembled, stored and transported. A sheet of SheetSav®, Corrugated, fiberboard, plastic or other authorized material used for extra protection or for separating tiers of layers of articles when packed or palletized for shipment or storage. 

                                          Liquid mixture consisting of suspended fibers, fillers, coating pigments and other solid materials in water or adhesive, used in the paper making process.

                                          Wood obtained from evergreen, cone-bearing species of trees, such as pines, spruces, hemlocks, etc., which are characterized by having needles.

                                          An electromagnetic device which positions a hydraulic valve. Permits the use of an auxiliary valve to control multiple function attachments.

                                          Single-ply, homogeneous paperboard that is made from the same stock throughout the entire sheet structure.

                                          Joint made in a continuous sheet of paper with glue or adhesive tape when a break occurs in the web during winding or rewinding into a roll.

                                          Paper Roll Clamp arms move independently to handle more than one roll of different sizes.

                                          The triangulation between the two front wheels and the center of the rear axle of a lift truck.

                                          Describes the procedure of holding a unit load together with straps, tape, glue or wraps.

                                          A structural member of the carton clamp arm, upon which the contact pad is bolted, which pivots to allow the contact pad to evenly distribute clamp force front-to-back. Also referred to as Equalizer.

                                          A structural roll defect caused by uneven wound in tension. High tension wound over low tension can cause the collapse of the softer low tension interior. Refers to the visual look of a collapsed section of a roll. This collapse can be precipitated by an outside blow or force such as contact with other rolls, the floor or a roll clamp.

                                          1) Fibrous mixture that is made into paper. May consist of one or more types of beaten or refined pulps, with or without suitable fillers, dyes, additives, and other chemicals. Also called furnish. 2) Paper suitable for a particular use, such as coating raw stock, milk bottle stock, tag stock, etc.

                                          A powered lift vehicle for movement of pallet containers, which is driven over one or more containers and lifts them by gripping the edges of the pallet deckboards.

                                          Polyethylene film stretches—Contains unit or holds one or more tiers in place. Film 20" x 0.85 to 1.0 mil. which tack polyethylene film on 3" cores. Set Up (SU) refers to articles in their assembled condition, or those articles which do not meet other standards for KD, KD-flat, folded, nested, etc.

                                          Auxiliary piece of papermaking equipment used on some paper machines to obtain a denser paper with a higher finish than paper obtained on a calender.

                                          A momentary rise of pressure in a hydraulic circuit.

                                          Permanently crimping fitting to hose.

                                          Works much like a sideshifter allowing driver to reposition a roll or the arms of a paper roll clamp without having to reposition the truck. Also allows arms to be moved to the equal-length position for easier car breakout and tight stacking. 

                                            Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry—a technical society which develops and disseminates knowledge on the technology of pulp, paper, paperboard, etc.

                                            Resistance of a paper sheet to tearing, usually measured by the force required to tear a strip under standardize conditions.

                                            The condition that occurs when lifting rolls where either the outer wraps of the roll move or slide relative to the bulk of the roll or many layers progressively move resulting in a telescoping action by the roll.

                                            Tensile is tension strength capability. Defined as the maximum longitudinal stress a substance can bear without tearing apart. Tensile strength as related to slipsheets is the maximum longitudinal stress the slipsheet can bear without tearing or the force required to pull apart one square inch of the material used. It is influenced by the composition and thickness (weight) of the material employed. Moisture resistance and slickness depend on the material and coating or lack of it.

                                            Touch Force Control - Allows lift truck drivers to easily select product being handled and then automatically apply the appropriate clamp force.

                                            Expansion of the volume due to increasing temperature.

                                            The act of picking less than a full load of boxes off the top of a unit load. Also referred to as layer picking.

                                            Unit loads stacked/decked vertically on top of one another.

                                            Automatically controls the angle of the mast and attachment, which automatically aligns pad to roll, and roll to floor. Use in conjunction with Rotational Control.

                                            Clamp specifically designed to gently handle delicate tissue paper rolls.

                                            Is used in sanitary products such as bath tissue, paper towels, facial tissue, and napkins, and is sold to consumer and commercial/industrial customers. Tissue is sold primarily as finished goods in cases rather than in roll or sheet form. 

                                            In carton handling, it provides pressure at the front of the load to prevent front cases from slipping while still retaining the back cartons.

                                            The turning effort of a hydraulic motor or rotary cylinder. Usually given in inch pounds (in-lbs) or foot pounds (ft-lbs).

                                            Clamps designed to handle two or more rolls at a time.

                                            Truck designed to enter aisle between racks with the ability to turn loads to the right or left for deposit or pickup.

                                              Underwriters Laboratories Listed/Rated

                                              Ground to outer channel (3", 5", 6" or bottom of attachment).

                                              The summation of the outer dimensions of a fiberboard box — length, width and depth added together.

                                              A load of like or unlike product which has been secured together as a unit by banding, wrapping, etc. and handled as a single unit.

                                              The width of the carriage (ITA profile) available for a Sideshifter or Fork Positioner to mount on.

                                                A device which controls either (a) pressure of fluid, (b) direction of fluid flow, or (c) rate of flow.

                                                Bypass Flow Regulator Valve—regulates the flow to a circuit at a constant volume, dumping excess oil.

                                                Check Valve—permits flow in only one direction.

                                                Closed Center Valve—inlet and outlet ports closed in neutral position, stopping flow from pump.

                                                Directional Control Valve—see Spool Valve.

                                                Flow Control Valve—controls the rate of flow (sometimes referred to as a Volume Control Valve.

                                                Flow Divider Valve—divides flow from one source into two or more branches including (a) priority and (b) proportional types.

                                                Needle Valve—has an adjustable tapered point which regulates the rate of flow.

                                                Open Center Valve—inlet and outlet ports open in the neutral position, allowing continuous flow of oil from pump.

                                                Pilot Valve—used to operate another valve or control.

                                                Poppet Valve—the seating element pops open to obtain free flow in one direction and immediately reseats when flow reverses.

                                                Pressure Control Valve—primary function is to control pressure (includes relief valves, pressure reducing or sequencing valves and unloading valves).

                                                Priority Flow Divider Valve—directs oil to one circuit at a fixed rate and dumps excess flow into another circuit.

                                                Pressure Relief Valve—limits pressure in system, usually by releasing excess oil.

                                                Sequence Valve—operates at sequencing or end of hydraulic or electric function.

                                                Shuttle Valve—a connecting valve which selects one of two or more circuits because of flow or pressure changes in these circuits.

                                                Shutoff Valve—operates fully open or fully closed.

                                                Thermal Relief Valve—limits the pressure in a system caused by heat expansion of oil.

                                                Vertical Center of Gravity

                                                Distance which a fluid travels per unit of time. Usually given as feet per second.

                                                When properly aligned, considered the best stacking pattern from the standpoint of box compression strength.

                                                The measure of resistance of a fluid to flow.

                                                The amount of fluid flow per unit of time. Usually given as gallons per minute (GPM)

                                                  All types of used paper that provide a source of fiber for the manufacture of some papers, paperboards and chipboards.

                                                  Continuous sheet of paper produced and rolled up at full width on the paper machine.

                                                  Refrigerators, stoves, freezers, ranges, etc.

                                                  1) Any paper that is made from a pulpstock whose natural color has been corrected by the addition of blue, yellow and red dyestuff. 2) To a printer, any paper sheet that is devoid of any printing material.

                                                  Truck which tracks on wire in the warehouse floor.

                                                  Batten—wooden strip used on sides and tops of unit loads in conjunction with steel straps to secure the load.

                                                  Beverage Pallet - see ‘Beverage Industry.’

                                                  Block — deck spacers used for full four-way entry pallets and solid deck pallets.

                                                  Bonded Unit Load — items of a type or shape that must be bound into a unit for movement on a pallet.

                                                  Bottom Deck — load bearing surface.

                                                  Bottom Face — the total underside deckboard area of pallet.

                                                  Cap — a device of wood, fiberboard or canvas used on top of a unit load to equalize overhang on pallet and to provide a square load. 

                                                  Chamfer — a beveled edge on the top side of bottom deckboards for the purpose of easing the entry and exit of forks and pallet truck load wheels. Chamfers are also required on the underside of top deckboards on reversible pallets.

                                                  Chep Pallet - a pallet rental program.

                                                  Deck - the horizontal load-carrying or load-bearing surface of a pallet.

                                                  Deckboard - the surface element used in the construction of a pallet deck.

                                                  Deck Opening - any void in the deck caused by the spacing of surface elements or a cutout in a solid deck pallet.

                                                  Deck Spacer - a structural member that supports the top deck or separates top and bottom decks.

                                                  Double-Deck Pallet  -  a pallet having top and bottom deck.

                                                  Edge Board - a member assembled at right angles to the extreme ends of stringers or stringer boards.

                                                  Flush Pallet - a pallet whose decks do not protrude beyond stringers, blocks or deck spacers.

                                                  Four-Way Pallet - a pallet whose configuration permits insertion and withdrawal of handling equipment from all sides of the pallet.

                                                  Frame - wooden framework, open or solid, used to enclose small items, or to provide stable loads or supplemental vertical support.

                                                  Length - the first dimension stated in designating a pallet size. It is the dimension parallel to the stringers or stringer boards.

                                                  Non-Bonded Unit Load - consists of items of a type or shape that can be handled on a pallet as a unit without binding.

                                                  Nonreversible pallet - a pallet having dissimilar top and bottom decks, with only the top deck having a load carrying surface.

                                                  Notched stringer - a stringer that has openings cut out for insertion and withdrawal of pallet-lifting equipment.

                                                  NWPCA - National Wooden Pallet and Container Association

                                                  Overhang - that portion of the unit load that exceeds the width or length dimensions of a pallet.

                                                  Pallet - a horizontal platform on which unit loads are assembled, placed to permit stacking of material, and transporting the material and pallet as single unit load.

                                                  Palletization - the modern use of pallets to facilitate handling, storage and shipment of merchandise and goods.

                                                  Partial four-way pallet - a pallet whose configuration permits four-way entry by the forks of a lift truck, but restricts the load wheel forks of a hand pallet truck to two-way entry.

                                                  Reversible Pallet - a pallet having similar top and bottom decks capable of carrying a load.

                                                  Single Deck Pallet - a pallet having only a top deck.

                                                  Strap Slots - small cuts made on top sides of stringers or on underside of some top deckboards to facilitate tie-down strapping and to help prevent lateral movement of strap.

                                                  Stringer - a continuous longitudinal member that supports the decks.

                                                  Stringer Board - the subsurface element beneath and at right angles to the deckboard and placed above or below blocks or deck spacers.

                                                  Take It or Leave It Pallet - a pallet fitted with fixed cleats on the top deckboards to permit fork truck time sto pass beneath the unit load and remove it from the pallet.

                                                  Top deck - load carrying surface.

                                                  Top face - the total topside deckboard area of a pallet.

                                                  Two-Way Pallet - a pallet whose configuration permits insertion and withdrawal of handling equipment from opposite directions, along the same horizontal axis.

                                                  Unit Load - two or more items handled as a single unit.

                                                  Width - the dimension parallel to the top deckboards. It is always the second dimension designated in pallet size.

                                                  Wing Pallet - a pallet whose decks protrude along two sides beyond the outer edges of the stringers, blocks or deck spacers.

                                                  The U.S. is the woodbasket to the world, with its commercial forest of 490 million acres producing 25% of the world's industrial roundwood. The U.S. forest base is predominately controlled by non-industrial private owners, with the balance in the hands of state and federal government and industry. 

                                                  Wireless Power and Communication System - Adds additional functionality to the attachment without the need for over-the-mast wiring systems. Inductive battery charging, powers accessories, controls and up to four channels, two-way wireless digital RF switching, wireless CANbus communication.

                                                    Allows contact pads or arms to touch at the tips.

                                                    When the attachment is mounted straight, without any angle.